Optical glass is specified in our common glass a special kind of glass, they can provide special optical field, for human beings to understand the microscopic world has deep space provides important material premise.
Optical glass has good optical performance, can made in the optical lens to ensure the good light transmittance, this is very important, in the observation of the outer space environment, general lens on the light loss is very large, the air observation will lose a lot of vision, great observation error; on the other hand, in observation of the microscopic world, the good performance of the optical glass can make the thickness of the lens can be improved to produce more compact observation lens, make the equipment more convenient and practical.
It can be said that without the help of optical glass, our progress in science and technology will be more slow.
Optical glass is different from our daily life of ordinary glass, the so-called optical glass is through the special and rare elements added for the production of special glass, in the glass production process with special and rare elements can change glass of conventional properties, can let the glass products become more heat or a change in the glass surface properties, so that the glass can not afford not fog, dew condensation and so on.
For industrial production, optical glass has a very important role, the optical glass products, high temperature resistant glass is a very special glass products, able to withstand very high processing temperature and guarantee in the process of high temperature in the production and processing of available to the operator a safety observation of the environment, the effect of high temperature processing very ambitious.
In addition, in the physical and chemical aspects of the processing and production experiments, optical glass can assist a variety of physical and chemical experiments, to provide only enough theoretical support for the processing of production.
Glass industry is a high energy consumption industry, glass melting kiln is the most energy consumption of glass production line equipment, in the cost of glass fuel costs accounted for about 35% ~ 50% of our own design and most of the float glass glass furnace liquid consumption can reach 6500kJ/kg to 7500kJ/kg glass liquid, foreign large float glass enterprises only 5800kJ/kg glass liquid, we compared with the international advanced level has certain gap.
Developed countries glass furnace thermal efficiency generally in the 30% ~ 40%, China glass furnace thermal efficiency average only 25% ~ 35%. The furnace structure design and heat preservation measures are not reasonable, use quality refractory low grade is there is one of the important reasons for this gap. Secondly, the domestic float glass process backward technology, management is not perfect and so on is caused by high energy consumption, poor quality of melting, short service life of the furnace. At present in China has a float glass production line of more than 140, glass production capacity increased rapidly, market competition gradually intensified. As the main fuel of the heavy oil, the price continues to go up, the proportion of the cost of glass is more and more large. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of glass, to reduce production costs, improve the market competitiveness of enterprises, reduce environmental pollution, ease the energy shortage and so on are of great significance.
Energy conservation of glass enterprises is a long-term task, domestic and foreign technical personnel to actively carry out research, such as optimizing the furnace structure design, oxygen rich combustion, the whole oxygen combustion electric melting, heavy oil emulsion technology, etc.. At present, many enterprises have begun to implement energy-saving measures in the production process, and the energy saving measures in the field of glass production process control are explored.
With the water, temperature and fuel consumption is well known, the state of water in the mixture is closely related to the temperature of the mixture. With the material temperature is greater than 35 DEG C, the vast majority of water in the free state in the attachment to melt the sand surface, which can adhesion more soda help strengthen melting effect. When the temperature of batch is less than 35 DEG C, with the material of water and sodium carbonate formation na2co3-10h2o are chosen to make new or Na2CO3.7H2O, and Glauber's salt formation of new compounds of crystallization water, make the sand surface loss of moisture is dry, weaken the fluxing action.
In the northern region in winter due to lower temperatures, the complex temperature is generally lower than 35 degrees Celsius, some regions and even only about 20. In order to maintain the batch wet looking, usually taken to increase with material moisture, although have a role to play, but will also bring many disadvantages, such as silo wall caking phenomenon aggravating, fuel consumption increase. Some people through the calculation, it is concluded that the water into the kiln needs to consume the amount of oil for 0.085kg oil /kg water.
In the analysis, the washing glass instrument is not only a must do the preparation work before the experiment, but also a technical work. The washing of the instrument is in compliance with the requirements, the accuracy and precision of the test results have an impact on the accuracy and precision of the test results. Different analysis work has different instrument cleaning requirements, we use the general quantitative chemical analysis as the main method of washing equipment.
(1) clean agents and the range of use
The most commonly used cleaning agents are soap, soap solution (special products), washing powder, detergent powder, lotion, organic solvents, etc..
Soap, liquid soap, washing powder, decontamination powder for can brush direct scrub instruments, such as beakers, triangle and reagent bottle; a lotion for inconvenience for cleaning brush instruments, such as the burette pipette, volumetric flask, distillation and other special shape of the instrument, and can also be used to wash long unused cups, dishes and utensils, brush scaling. With the washing apparatus, is the use of the solution itself and dirt from the role of chemical reaction, the removal of dirt. Hence the need for full function of soaking a chance; organic solvent is the dirt is a certain types of greasy, while the use of organic solvents to dissolve the grease wash in addition to, or with the help of some organic solvents and mixed water and play fast particularity, rinse with water instrument will not wash. Such as toluene, xylene, gasoline and other can wash the grease, alcohol, ether, acetone can be the instrument just wash with water rinse.
(two) preparation of the washing liquid and the use of the matters needing attention in the detergent solution for short, according to different requirements, there are a variety of different solutions. The more commonly used are introduced as follows.
Strong oxidant lotion acid oxidant lotion is with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). K2Cr2O7 in acidic solution, has strong oxidation ability, less corrosion of the glass instrument ps.. So this lotion is widely used in the laboratory. Formulated concentrations vary, from 5~12% to a variety of concentrations are. Preparation method of roughly the same: take a certain amount of K2Cr2O7 (industrial products), with about 1 ~ 2 times of water, heating, dissolving, slightly cold, industrial concentrated H2SO4 required volume slowly adding K2Cr2O7 solution (do not will be water or solution by adding H2SO4), side down side by glass rod stirring, and careful not to spill, mixed evenly, as soon as after cooling into lotion bottle of spare. The newly formulated lotion is reddish brown, with strong oxidation ability. When washing with long into dark green, which means no oxidation stress washing lotion.
For example, the preparation of 12% lotion 500mL. Take 60 grams of industrial products of K2Cr2O7 placed in 100 ml of water (water amount is not fixed, in order to be able to dissolve), heating, dissolving, cooling, slowly adding concentrated H2SO4340mL, while kabe stirring, cold after bottling standby.
This kind of lotion in use should pay attention to can not be splashed on the body, in order to prevent burn broken clothes and damage the skin. Pour lotion to wash instrument, should make the instrument Biquan pause again after weeks of immersion into the lotion bottle. First with a small amount of water washing instrument just after immersion, don't waste water inverted in the water and sewer, long will the sewer of the pool and corrosion, should be inverted in the waste liquid in the cylinder cylinder full inverted in the garbage, if no waste liquid cylinder, but age literacy life concept of immortality ah hormone conversation into a pool of water, to edge down side by a lot of water flushing.
2 basic Lotion
An instrument used to wash oil and dirt, using this lotion for a long time (24 hours or more), or by boiling. From the alkali solution for the instrument, to wear latex gloves, so as not to burn the skin.
Commonly used alkali lotion: (Na2CO3 solution of sodium carbonate, sodium carbonate), sodium bicarbonate (Na2HCO3, baking soda), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4, trisodium phosphate) liquid, hydrogen phosphate disodium (Na2HPO4 solution).
3 basic Potassium Permanganate Lotion
Use alkaline Potassium Permanganate as lotion, slow, suitable for washing oil containers. Method: take the Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) 4 grams and a small amount of water dissolved, adding 10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 100mL.
4 pure soda acid lotion
According to the nature of the vessel dirt, direct use of concentrated sulfuric acid (HCL) or concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4), concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) immersion or immersion cooking utensils (temperature should not be too high, no person strong acid volatile stimulation). Soda wash the immersion of more than 10% of the concentrated caustic soda (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution or soaking and cooking utensils (boiling).
5 organic solvents
With fat dirt, the vessel can with gasoline, toluene, xylene, acetone, ethanol, chloroform, ether and other organic solvents scrub or immersion. But with organic solvents as a waste of large waste, can be used as a brush to wash the large instruments to use alkaline lotion. Cannot use small pieces of brush or special shape of the instrument before using the washing with organic solvents, such as in the piston hole, a pipette tip, tip of the burette, burette live jack, dropper, vials etc..
6 cleaning solution
The vessel for testing the carcinogenic chemical substances, in order to prevent damage to the human body, before washing should be used to destroy the decomposition of these carcinogenic substances have the effect of washing and removing liquid for immersion, and then wash.
Often used in food inspection decontamination liquid: 1% or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL), 20%HNO3 solution and 2%KMnO4 solution.
1% or 5%NaOCL solution on the destruction of aflatoxin. Using 1%NaOCL solution to soak the contaminated glass equipment for a long time or soak a moment with 5%NaOCL solution, you can achieve the role of the destruction of aflatoxin. Method: take bleaching powder 100 grams, 500 ml of water, stirring evenly and other industrial Na2CO3 80 grams of dissolved in 500ml warm water, then the two liquid mixing, stirring, clarification filtration, the filtrate containing NaOCl was 2.5%; if bleaching powder concentrate formulated, NaCO3 weight should be doubled, and the resultant solution concentration is about 5%. If you need 1%NaOCL solution, the above solution can be diluted in proportion.
20% HNO3 solution and 2% KMnO4 solution of benzo (a) pyrene have destructive effects, benzo (a) pyrene contaminated glass instrument can be used 20% HNO3 and immersed for 24 hours, removed after washed with tap water to residual acid, before washing. By benzene and (a) pyrene contaminated latex gloves and micro syringe and other available 2%KMnO4 solution soak for 2 hours, then wash.
(three) the steps and requirements of the washing glass apparatus
Constant washing apparatus
Washing equipment, should be the first hand wash with soap, so that the hand of the oil attached to the instrument, increase the difficulty of washing. Such as long-term storage of equipment with dust, first washed with water, and then by the requirements of the use of detergent or washing detergent. Such as with scouring powder, brush dipped in a small amount of detergent, instrument and brush again and again while water Chong Bian scrub to invisible to the naked eye decontamination powder, wash with running water 3 to 6 times, and then distilled water washed three times or more. A fine glass instrument should be clean, do not hang water for. If still can catch on the water, still need to wash. When washing with distilled water, the instrument should be washed with a smooth wall and fully shake, after being washed by distilled water, the indicator should be used as neutral.
2 for trace metal analysis of glass instruments, the use of 1:1~1:9HNO3 solution immersion, and then carry out regular washing.
3 when the fluorescence analysis, the glass instrument should avoid the use of washing powder washing (washing powder containing fluorescent whitening agent, will give the results of the analysis of the error).
4 Analysis of carcinogenic substances, should use the appropriate wash snack soak, then wash with normal methods.
Glass tempering process has three basic requirements, only to meet these basic requirements in order to produce a qualified laser glass products:
First, the glass must be heated to the required temperature, the temperature of each part of the glass surface to be uniform, the difference is not too large, the glass surface and the middle can not be too large. To control the three main aspects of the master:
First, according to the load of the electric furnace, select the reasonable heating temperature and control the temperature in the furnace effectively. In the heating furnace of glass are: conduction, radiation and convection, electric load is not mentioned here refers to the glass cover area of electric furnace, it refers to the relationship between the glass thickness, heating temperature and heating time, heating and tempering electric furnace used in the present most manufacturers generally can be divided into many heating zones very small, each district can be individually controlled by the host computer, under normal circumstances, the electric heating central heating element within the region, the total glass in the heat, in this area has been in the furnace, glass, this is the area of the heating effect is regional, if a district electric furnace heat consumption over heating effect, the temperature in this area began to decline, which is over loading, glass tempering success mainly depends on the minimum temperature of the glass plate Party, once the electric furnace has an overload phenomenon, furnace temperature will decline, resulting in glass during cooling cooling paragraph resulting in broken. Heating temperature setting, according to the thickness of tempered glass, tempered glass is thin, the temperature will be higher and higher to toughened glass is thicker, the temperature will be lower, for control of the heating temperature, the operating personnel to understand the relationship between furnace temperature and heating time and the temperature of the electric thickness of different glass change value, so I do not explicitly pointed out what kind of temperature setting is best, because the temperature but also to a large extent decided to the quality of the original piece of glass. In addition, heating system for measuring the temperature of the bottom and the temperature of the roller is not, but tempering furnace bottom heating elements compensated roller glass absorbs heat after the average temperature. For this reason, the measured temperature is generally higher, than the measured temperature of the upper part to higher, so the temperature of tempering furnace upper generally set to be higher than the lower temperature. Below, the author give a temperature control example, if we in the production, so that the glass from the heating furnace to quench chamber temperature increased by 10 DEG C.
Second, select the reasonable heating time when the laser lens material is produced. Tempering furnace heating power is certain, usually set the heating time (the electric furnace heating time) about per mm glass thickness of 35-40 seconds. For example: 6mm thickness glass heating time is about =228 6 x 38 seconds seconds. This method adapt to the thickness is less than 12mm thick glass ordinary flat glass. When the thickness of the glass in the 12mm-19mm and calculation method of the heating time is 1mm thickness of glass is about 40 to 45 seconds. The production of curved tempered glass, heating time per mm of thickness of glass increased by 2.5-5 seconds. With slotted holes or glass, heating time to this calculation method on the 5%. With sharp (less than 30 DEG) glass and gray glass heating time in this method to 2.5%. Below the author cite examples of a furnace temperature control, to the interpretation of the heating temperature and heating time, if we in the production of 6mm tempered glass, heating temperature for 705 DEG C, heating time of 215 seconds, to make the glass from heating furnace to quench chamber temperature is increased to 10 DEG C, two kinds of method to realize: the first method is to raise the furnace temperature 10 degrees Celsius; the second method is increasing the heating time and the temperature of the furnace. Remain unchanged. Note: nearly glass temperature tempering temperature before the slower heating rate, we need to understand such a basic principle: if the furnace temperature changes of a few degrees set, we also want to the glass temperature also changes in the same temperature, it is necessary to change the heating time + T seconds to make glass out of the furnace temperature in + T seconds of time remains unchanged.
Third, to achieve the uniform heating, glass in the layout is also very important. The reasonable arrangement of the discharge piece is mainly to ensure the uniformity of the longitudinal and the transverse load in the electric furnace, that is to say, the arrangement of the piece of glass and the interval time of each furnace should be uniform. We want to understand from the heating furnace to quench chamber process temperature rules, we must make clear glass plate is arranged depending factors: when the glass moves back and forth along the furnace, areas adjacent to the edge of the glass roller are prone to overheating, this kind of phenomenon between the two pieces of glass roller surface is easy to happen. In the actual production, if the glass plate in tempering furnace has been in the same place slices are arranged forward movement, each roller temperature difference is relatively obvious, the position change, the glass will in quench chamber in heating furnace is coved or broken. In order to get the best tempering effect. We want to remember to put films of note: in order to avoid the gap between vertical glass plate lead to quit the furnace temperature is too high, put a piece of glass plate is put on the stage is more reasonable, easier to maintain consistency of roller temperature, that put films longitudinal gaps appear, under a put films to fill this void. In addition, in the long longitudinal gap (more than equal to one-half) laid down in a furnace of glass and its adverse effect to than in the longitudinal length of glass is more obvious. This is because the gap of the high temperature in the heating start is affected, to have sufficient time to make the temperature balance down.
Fourth, as far as possible to the glass cooling to cool the fastest, the cooling rate depends on other properties in the thickness of the glass and glass, two surface cooling glass to be balanced; the ideal cooling medium stage tempering process is dry cold air, the unit area about the cooling capacity is certain, so the cooling capacity 5mm glass needed is equal to two times of 6mm glass, 12mm glass cooling capacity also need is only half of 10mm glass, for this reason, considering the influence of the thickness of the glass to the cooling speed, so you can say: 5mm glass cooling rate is four times of 6mm glass, 12mm glass cooling rate only 6mm 1/4.
Fifth, laser lens material in the process of tempering glass or stop the movement, the glass surface can not be scratched and deformation of the traces left behind. The campaign includes glass enclosed in the heating furnace of hot rocking motion, heat pendulum motion is in order to make the glass surface of each part of the heating uniform; also includes glass in air cooling cold pendulum motion, cold pendulum motion is for even tempered glass, ensure that the glass broken blocks are uniformly. For the quality of the original plate glass requirements, the original plate glass can not be a layer of miscellaneous, blasting edges, scratches, bubbles, etc., these conditions can cause the glass in the air.
APOchromatic): it can be imagined that if a material with the change of the refractive index of the value of the wavelength can be arbitrarily controlled, then we can design a completely without the color of the lens. It is a pity that the dispersion of the material can not be controlled arbitrarily. We step back to imagine, if we can be divided into the visible spectrum of blue - green, green - red two ranges, and these two ranges can be applied to eliminate color difference technology, two levels of spectrum can be basically eliminated.
However, after calculation shows: if the green and red light to eliminate color, then the blue color will become very big; if the blue light and green color, the red color will become great. Theoretical calculation for apochromatic find a way, if the low refractive convex lens manufacturing rate of blue light emitting materials of green part of relative color exactly and manufacturing a concave lens of high refractive rate part of the material relative color the same, then the realization of blue and red achromatic after, green color just eliminate.
This theory points out that the realization of apochromatic right way, is to look for a kind of special optical materials. Its blue to red light relative dispersion should is very low, and blue to green part of the relative dispersion should be very high and a high dispersion material with the same. Fluorite is such a kind of special material, the dispersion is very low (Abbe number up to 95.3) and relative partial dispersion and many optical glass close. Fluorite (CaF2, molecular formula CaF2) refractive index is relatively low ND=1.4339, slightly soluble in water (0.0016g/100g water), processing and poor chemical stability, but due to its excellent achromatic properties, making it become a kind of precious optical materials. Fluorite was first used only in microscope, since the fluorite crystallization process to achieve, the high long focal lens in fluorite is almost an indispensable material.
Because of the fluorite is expensive, difficult processing, the optical company has spared no effort to the search of fluorite substitutes, fluoro crown glass is one of the. The company called AD glass, ED glass, UD glass, often is this kind of substitute.
China Building Materials Science Research Institute successfully developed large size quartz glass products, products with diameter up to 600 mm above, optically homogeneous reached 2.1 10-6, to fill the domestic blank, marking the Chinese large size quartz glass optical homogeneity successfully entered the "2.0" era, laid the technical foundation for the R & D greater size and high uniform quartz glass products.
Optical homogeneity of the material characterization on the internal refraction rate uneven degree, if the optical uneven light through the medium will produce phase may lead to optical system to realize the expected function, even can not work properly. As a necessary for all kinds of sophisticated optical system lens material, fused silica glass optical uniform directly affect the imaging quality of the optical system. From "95", Chinese Building Materials Science Research Institute is committed to high uniform quartz glass for new technology and new equipment and related basic theory research, has pioneered the vertical chemical vapor deposition process in China in the "fifteen" period, the manufacture of large size, Gao Junyun quartz glass becomes possible; "11th Five-Year" during the implementation of a diameter of 300 mm diameter optical uniformity of 3 * 10-6 and mass production; through the "12th Five-Year" science and technology research, the optical homogeneity from 3 * 10-6 to 2 * 10-6 to achieve a qualitative leap, the formation of independent intellectual property rights of complete sets of technology and equipment, won the 2014 building materials industry science and Technology Invention Prize two the progress of the industry, driven by the application of related products, in the field of high technology and high precision of mapping camera system.
We usually see the camera of the camera on the edge of the full infrared LED lamp, the LED lamp is mainly in low light or dark night, such a infrared radiation to the object or human body reflection back for imaging and recognition, so as to achieve the public safety protection and monitoring. But infrared LED in the work will often send out the red light, because the LED is a semiconductor chip (GaAs, silicon, etc.) made, through the electricity after the experience of heat. In particular, the process is more mature 850 infrared light-emitting tube, the phenomenon of the red burst. In the dark night, if someone saw the red light on the camera in the work, immediately remove the camera or away from the camera, it is not conducive to the normal monitoring. Now a practice is only through infrared brown plastic, the other one is infrared light in a different location, but this is not the best choice.
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